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Domestic waste water treatment

 

DOMESTIC WASTE WATER TREATMENT UNITS WITH SEPTIC TANK AND UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION  

Domestic waste water under normal conditions have common characteristics.  

The values below are about pollutant concentrations observed at domestic waste water under normal conditions.  

Supply 150 l/inhab

BOD5  300 – 350 mg/l

Floating solids 300 – 350 mg/l

Total Nitrogen TKΝ 60 –80 mg/l

Total Phosphorous PO4  12 –18 mg/l

 

 

Septic Tank

The simplest domestic waste water treatment is that of a septic tanks (or some tanks in a row) where waste water is submitted to subsidence, natural flotation and anaerobic digestion of the sediment sludge. The tank may have 2, 3 or 4 chambers. 

The active volume of the tanks is roughly 0,8 m3 per resident according to DIN4261 (other specifications propose smaller values). 

The first chamber of the two-chamber tank consists of 2/3 of the total volume, whereas for the three- and four-chamber tank ½ of the total volume. (German specification DIN4261)

Separations between chambers must be fabricated in such a way, so as to avoid passage of sludge and floating solids to the next chambers.  

The septic tank can be fabricated by concrete, or even plastic PEHD, PP ή GRP.

 The degree of cleaning by the septic tanks does not exceed the following values:

BOD5 < 40%,

 Floating solids < 80%,

Total nitrogen < 40% 

Similar results are also achieved by another two-chamber septic tank that of Imhof.  

Here waste water passes first through the first chamber where flow is decelarated and solids are separated and stay as sediments on the bottom digestion chamber - where they are treated in a anearobic way. 

Removing the sludge from the septic tank is done once every 1 or 2 years.  

The two above anaerobic systems can be applied sometimes before underground distribution or as a first treatment step before aerobic treatment.  

In any case, the dimensions of the units depend on the required volume for the unobstracted waste water flow, so as to be able to achieve sedimentation and on the required volume for collecting sludge.  

 

 

Wastewater distribution to the soil with perforated pipes.

After the anaerobic treatment, wastewater while be distributed to the soil and will be absorbed in the surface of soil particles. There a biological layer will be created, which will split the organic pollutants in inorganic elements and gases. At the same time a chemical decomposition of inorganic substances will take place and a mechanic filtering. 

The installation of the system presupposes a low underground water horizon.

 The surface of the field required for the installation of the system depends on the soil’s filtering capacity, which will be measured by us by an in situ examination.

The system decreases effectively all pollution indicators apart from the nitric ones, since there are no requirements for denitrification.

 

 In case the soil has the right filtering capacities and we have at our disposal sufficient surface for distributing the pretreated waste water we follow the following procedure for installing the unit.  

  

1) Setting the limits and doing the excavation for the septic part and for at least three distribution pipes. 

2) Installing the septic tanks on a layer of sand and connecting them to the drainage pipe.  

3) Covering the distribution ditches with the appropriate ιάστρωση των χαντακιών διάθεσης με κατάλληλο gravel at a height of almost 30 cm. 

4) Installing the distribution chamber and perforated pipes.  

      5) Constructing the aeration orifices at the pipe edges.

6)  Covering the pipes with the appropriate gravel and on top with geotextile and horticultural soil until the ground surface. and των αγωγών με κατάλληλο χαλίκι.  

 

Septic Tank Units with Underground Distribution


INHABITANTS

CAPACITY

SEPTIC TANK

DISTRIBUTION PIPES

2-4

600l/day

3200l

40m

4-6

900l/day

4800l

50m

6-8

1200l/day

6000l

60m

8-10

1500l/day

8000l

70m

10-12

1800l/day

9600l

80m

12-14

2100l/day

11000l

90m

 

 


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