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Swimming pool - Hygiene regulations - Water quality

Introduction.
The pool water must be clear, free from bacteria and algae, to ensure a pleasant and healthy swim.  

Water Quality

PARAMETER

VALUE

MEANS OF MONITORING

Clearness

Colour

pH

 

Free Chlorine

Water hardness

Algae

Full Clearness

no colour

7,2 - 7,6 (sweet)

7,5 - 7,8 (sea-water)

0,6 - 1,0 ppm

6 - 10 ° F

no algae

optic 

optic  

pH test KIT or apparatus

 

Chlorine test KIT or apparatus

Water hardness test KIT 

optic 





Water problems.

Organic pollution.
When the swimming pool is used by many people at the same time, the water can not be self-cleaned, no matter how fast it is recycled due to its inefficient contact with the air, Thus, an organic load is created which causes infections and that should be constantly monitored and removed.  
This monitoring is done by maintaining an adequate quantity of free chlorine in the pool, which will react with all the created organic substances. These compounds (chlorine products) are removed through filtering and this part of the water is discarded and replaced with "fresh" water, along with the one lost through evaporation (almost 1% of the total volume of the pool per week). 
 
Multiplication of Bacteria.
Even when nobody uses the pool, bacteria always develop inside it especially when the temperature increases. The multiplication of bacteria is of course intensified by the presence of bathers, who carry with them new colonies of  bacteria from the surrounding area and air. These bacteria can be dealt with the appropriate chemical treatment.  

 
Eye and mucous irritation  
It's mainly due to the creation of a big quantity of alkaline compounds. Chlorine treatment followed by chlorine reaction with organic compounds creates a particularly alkaline pH that should be monitored and decreased so as to avoid eye and mucous irritation. Eye and skin irritations are caused also by acidic pH.  

Turbidity 
It's the most obvious of the water problems. If the swimming-pool has important depth even the least turbidity is detectable. For this, the removal of turbidity is of fundamental importance and is achieved with the proper water filtering. The causes of turbidity can beby  dust transported by the wind, the subsidence dissolved minerals  (like calcium and magnesium) due to water heating or high pH, water that contains iron, algae, colloids etc.  
 

Algae and fungi
The growth of algae and fungi emanates from the combination of water, light, alkalinity and temperature. The light begins the process of photosynthesis, that gives food to the seeds of algae that fall into the water from the air, where they hover. An effective preventive control of algae is easier than their removal. Water treatment is done in this case with algaecides and chlorine.  

Unpleasant colour and smell 
Water colour is the result of turbidity and sometimes the existence of volatile hydro-carbonates which give the water a golden-yellow colour. The water should have no smell.   

pH
pH is the 
element indicative of how much acidic or alkaline is the water. When the water pH is smaller than 7 the water is acidic, when it is higher than 7 water is alkaline and when he is equal with the 7 it's neutral. For the human skin the ideal pH is between 7,0 and 7,4. The pH of tears is 7. On the other hand, the most effective action of chlorine is with a pH of 7,0. It has been proved that for a pH of 8,5 it is required 10 times more chlorine than for a pH of 7,5. Low pH causes erosion in the metal parts of the equipment of the swimming-pool, gives a flavour of chloride to the water and causes eye and skin irritation to the swimmers. High pH causes proliferation of algae, encourages the subsidence of hard salts, decreases the efficiency of the chlorine, and causes eyes and mucous irritation. The permissible values of water pH for swimming-pools is between 7,2 and 7,6 and between these values we seek to maintain the pool water.     



 


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